Observe for factors behind ineffective coping such as poor self-concept, grief, lack of problem-solving skills, lack of support, or recent change in life situation. 2. Observe for strengths such as the ability to relate the facts and also to recognize the source of stressors. 3. Monitor risk of harming self or others and intervene properly. See care arrange for Risk for Suicide.

Situational factors can result in major depression or risk for suicide. 4. Help client established practical goals and identify personal knowledge and skills. 5. Use empathetic communication, and encourage customer/family to verbalize anxieties, express emotions, and set goals. 6. Encourage customer to make options and take part in planning of care and scheduled activities.

Participation gives a feeling of control and raises self-esteem. 7. Provide mental and physical activities within the client’s ability (e.g., reading, television, radio, crafts, outings, movies, dinners out, interpersonal gatherings, exercise, sports activities, games). 8. If your client is in physical form able, encourage moderate aerobic exercise. 9. Use touch with permission. Give customer a member of family back again therapeutic massage using gradual, rhythmic stroking with hands.

Use a rate of 60 strokes one minute for three minutes on 2-in . wide areas on both sides of the spinous process from the crown to the sacral area. A gentle touch can display acceptance and empathy (Hopkins, 1994). Slow heart stroke back again therapeutic massage decreased heart rate, reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and increased pores and skin temperature at significant levels. 10. Provide information regarding care before care is given. 11. Discuss changes with client before making them. 12. Discuss client’s/family’s power to change a situation or the necessity to accept a situation.

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Such a dialogue helps your client maintain self-esteem and look at the problem realistically using a trusted person (Norris, 1992). In threatening situations, people search for reasons for the event(s). 13. Use active listening and acceptance to help client express emotions such as crying, guilt, and anger (within appropriate limits).

14. Avoid fake reassurance; give honest answers and provide only the info requested. 15. Encourage customer to describe earlier stressors and the coping mechanisms used. Describing previous experiences strengthens effective coping and helps eliminate inadequate coping mechanisms. 16. Be supportive of coping behaviors; allow client time for you to relax. 17. Help clients to establish what signifying their symptoms may have for them.

18. Encourage use of cognitive behavioral rest (e.g., music therapy, guided imagery). 19. Use distraction techniques during procedures that cause client to be fearful. 20. Use organized desensitization when introducing new people, places, or methods that could cause fear and modified coping. 21. Provide the customer/family with a video of any feared treatment to view before the procedure. Ensure that the video shows a patient of similar age group and history. 22. Refer for guidance as needed. 1. Engage client in reminiscence.

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